4. Multiplication of a vector by a scalar





It is often useful to be able to find a unit vector (a vector of length 1) in the direction of a given nonzero vector v. A common notation used for this unit vector is . For example, if v has length 3, then = v has length 1 and is in the same direction as v.
In general, the unit vector in the same direction as v is
Since = , we also have v = v. 

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