MATH3962/4062 Rings, Fields and Galois Theory (Advanced)
This page contains information on the senior advanced unit of study MATH3962.
- Taught in Semester 1.
- Credit point value: 6.
- Classes per week: Three lectures and one tutorial.
- Lecturer(s): Kevin Coulembier .
Please refer to the Senior Mathematics and Statistics Handbook for all questions relating to Senior Mathematics and Statistics. In particular, see the handbook entry for MATH3962 for further information relating to MATH3962.
For enrolled students or other authorized people only, here is a link to the Canvas page for MATH3962.
For enrolled students or other authorized people only, here is a link to the Canvas page for MATH4062.
Students have the right to appeal any academic decision made by the School or Faculty: see sydney.edu.au/students/academic-appeals.html.
|23:59 April 19||Assignment 1||20%|
|23:59 May 24||Assignment 2||20%|
MATH3962 Information in 2020
Class and consultation times
Lectures will be held on Mondays, Wednesdays and Thursdays at 9am, via Zoom.
- Tutorials are on Wednesday at 3pm on campus in Carslaw and at 4pm online, starting week 2.
- My consultation time is Wednesday 2-3pm in Carslaw 717.
This unit of study investigates the modern mathematical theory that was originally developed for the purpose of studying polynomial equations. In a nutshell, the philosophy is that it should be possible to completely factorise any polynomial into a product of linear factors by working over a "large enough" field (such as the field of all complex numbers). Viewed like this, the problem of solving polynomial equations leads naturally to the problem of understanding extensions of fields. This in turn leads into the area of mathematics known as Galois theory.
The basic theoretical tools needed for this program include the fundamental concepts of groups, rings, and fields. The course begins with the definitions and examples of these concepts, as well as the associated structures such as subgroups, subrings, homomorphisms, ideals and quotients. These tools are then applied to study quotient rings of polynomial rings. The final part of the course deals with the basics of Galois theory, which links the process of solving polynomials with the process of taking field extensions, and then links this process to properties of the Galois group of the polynomial. Of course there is a lot to learn before understanding how this all works, but the point is that the problem of solving polynomial equations is converted into a much more accessible problem in finite group theory.
Along the way we will see some beautiful gems of mathematics, including Fermat's Theorem on primes expressible as a sum of two squares, solutions to the ancient greek problems of trisecting the angle, squaring the circle, and doubling the cube, and the crown of the course: Galois' proof that there is no analogue of the "quadratic formula" for the general quintic equation.
Here is a week-by-week plan of the topics that we will cover. However things might change, and the lectures are the definitive guide for the content of this course.
- Week 1
- Introduction and overview, definitions of groups and rings, examples
- Week 2
- Subrings, polynomial rings, homomorphisms, ideals, and the First Isomorphism Theorem for groups and rings
- Week 3
- The Correspondence Theorem, integral domains, field of fractions of an integral domain
- Week 4
- Principal ideal domains, Euclidean domains, greatest common divisors, prime and irreducible elements
- Week 5
- The Unique Factorisation Theorem, unique factorisation domains, case study: Gaussian integers.
- Week 6
- Unique factorisation in polynomial rings, irreducibility in polynomial rings
- Week 7
- Irreducibility in polynomial rings continued, ring and field extensions
- Week 8
- Minimal polynomials, degree of a field extension, constructible numbers
- Week 9
- Solution to constructibility problems, constructible polygons, splitting fields, separability
- Week 10
- Subgroups, cosets, Lagrange's Theorem, normal subgroups, quotient groups, the symmetric group
- Week 11
- Finite fields, Galois groups, statement of the Galois correspondence, the order of the Galois group
- Week 12
- Proof of the Galois correspondence, solving polynomial equations using radicals, insolubility of the general quintic
- Week 13
- Revision and tying off loose ends.
The learning outcomes for this unit of study are as follows.
- be familiar with the basics of abstract ring and field theory;
- be familiar with the concepts of integral domains, principal ideal domains, Euclidean domains, and unique factorisation domains, and understand the relationships between these concepts;
- understand the concept of irreducibility in integral domains;
- be proficient at applying various irreducibility tests;
- be proficient at applying the Euclidean Algorithm in various contexts;
- have a solid working knowledge of the basic examples of rings and fields including the integers, Gaussian integers, polynomial rings, the rational numbers, and finite fields;
- be able to work with field extensions, including computing the degree of an extension and the minimal polynomial of a simple extension;
- understand the solutions to the three ancient greek geometric problems;
- know and be able to apply the basic concepts and definitions from Galois Theory;
- know the basic properties of the Galois group of a field extension;
- be able to compute Galois groups in simple examples;
- be able to construct proofs, including sophisticated proofs using a variety of concepts covered in the unit;
- be proficient in dealing in abstract concepts with an emphasis on the clear explanation of such concepts to others;
- be able to apply the theory and methods introduced in the unit to specific examples, both those encountered in lectures and tutorials, and to related examples.
Your mark for MATH3962 will be calculated as follows (note that adjustments have been made as a result of moving online in response to covid19).
- Two assignments, worth
The assignments will give practice in investigating
examples and constructing proofs, and feedback should help with your
mathematical writing skills and exam preparation. The assignments are due (via LMS) by midnight on the following dates:
- Assignment 1 due on Friday 16th April (Week 6)
- Assignment 2 due on Friday 21th May (Week 11)
- Final exam, worth 70%, during examination period.
The tutorial sheets will be posted below. We won't get through all the questions in the tutorial. It is expected that you spend at least 3 or 4 hours of your own time each week finishing off as many of the questions as you can. This is key to success in this challenging course.
- High Distinction (HD), 85-100
- Complete or close to complete mastery of the material
- Distinction (D), 75-84:
- Excellence, but substantially less than complete mastery
- Credit (CR), 65-74:
- A creditable performance that goes beyond routine knowledge and understanding, but less than excellence
- Pass (P), 50-64:
- At least routine knowledge and understanding over a spectrum of topics and important ideas and concepts in the course.
The content of the unit is defined by the lectures rather than by a set text. Even though there is no reference book for the course, students might find the following lecture notes from previous years helpful:
- [RH] Rings and Fields and an Introduction to Galois Theory, by Robert Howlett,
- [AN] Rings, Fields and Galois Theory, by Adrian Nelson.
It is always a good idea to consult other sources for extra problems and alternative explanations. Most online mathematical encyclopedias contain material relevant to this unit. Be aware that conventions and notation may differ slightly from those in the lectures. The following books could be used to provide further practice if you like:
- Abstract Algebra, D. Dummit and R. Foote (this is an excellent reference, also for group theory)
- Galois theory, E. Artin
- A survey of modern algebra, Garrett Birkhoff and Saunders Mac Lane
- Modern algebra: an Introduction, John R. Durbin
- A first course in abstract algebra, John B. Fraleigh
- Abstract algebra, I. N. Herstein
- [IS] Galois theory, I. N. Stewart
Below is a very useful summary of what you covered in MATH2922. It is absolutely essential that you have a good grasp of this material. In particular, you have to know all of the material on groups, fields, vector spaces, linear transformations, and matrix representations. This is the material up to and including Lecture 5-3 in the notes:
In particular, it is important that you have a good understanding of group theory. On canvas you will find the tutorial for week 1; there is no actual tutorial in week 1, but the tutorial sheet contains some questions for revision of group theory.
|Monday lectures||Tuesday lectures||Wednesday lectures||Tutorials||Assessment|
|Lecture 1-1||Lecture 1-2||Lecture 1-2|
|Lecture 2-1||Lecture 2-2||Lecture 2-2||Tutorial 2 questions
Tutorial 2 solutions
|Lecture 3-1||Lecture 3-2||Lecture 3-2||Tutorial 3 questions
Tutorial 3 solutions
|Lecture 4-1||Lecture 4-2||Lecture 4-2||Tutorial 4 questions
Tutorial 4 solutions
|Lecture 5-1||Lecture 5-2||Lecture 5-2||Tutorial 5 questions
Tutorial 5 solutions
|Lecture 6-1||Lecture 6-2||Lecture 6-2||Tutorial 6 questions
Tutorial 6 solutions
|Lecture 7-1||Lecture 7-2||Lecture 7-2||Tutorial 7 questions
Tutorial 7 solutions
|Assignment 1 (20%)
Due 23:59 April 19
|Lecture 8-1||Lecture 8-2||Lecture 8-2||Tutorial 8 questions
Tutorial 8 solutions
|Lecture 9-1||Lecture 9-2||Lecture 9-2||Tutorial 9 questions
Tutorial 9 solutions
|Assignment 1 - solutions|
|Lecture 10-1||Lecture 10-2||Lecture 10-2||Tutorial 10 questions
Tutorial 10 solutions
|Assignment 2 - questions|
|Lecture 11-1||Lecture 11-2||Lecture 11-2||Tutorial 11 questions
Tutorial 11 solutions
|Lecture 12-1||Lecture 12-2||Lecture 12-2||Tutorial 12 questions
Tutorial 12 solutions
|Assignment 2 (20%)
Due 23:59 May 24
|Lecture 13-1||Lecture 13-2||Lecture 13-2||Tutorial 13 questions
Tutorial 13 solutions